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US Army Survival Manual


The US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL is based entirely on the keyword SURVIVAL. The letters in this word can help guide you in your actions in any survival situation. Whenever faced with a survival situation, remember the word SURVIVAL.

S -Size Up the Situation

If you are in a combat situation, find a place where you can conceal yourself from the enemy. Remember, security takes priority. Use your senses of hearing, smell, and sight to get a feel for the battlefield. What is the enemy doing? Advancing? Holding in place? Retreating? You will have to consider what is developing on the battlefield when you make your survival plan.

Size Up Your Surroundings

Determine the pattern of the area. Get a feel for what is going on around you. Every environment, whether forest, jungle, or desert, has a rhythm or pattern. This rhythm or pattern includes animal and bird noises and movements and insect sounds. It may also include enemy traffic and civilian movements.

Size Up Your Physical Condition

The pressure of the battle you were in or the trauma of being in a survival situation may have caused you to overlook wounds you received. Check your wounds and give yourself first aid. Take care to prevent further bodily harm. For instance, in any climate, drink plenty of water to prevent dehydration. If you are in a cold or wet climate, put on additional clothing to prevent hypothermia.

Size Up Your Equipment

Perhaps in the heat of battle, you lost or damaged some of your equipment. Check to see what equipment you have and what condition it is in.
Now that you have sized up your situation, surroundings, physical condition, and equipment, you are ready to make your survival plan. In doing so, keep in mind your basic physical needs–water, food, and shelter.

U -Use All Your Senses, Undue Haste Makes Waste

You may make a wrong move when you react quickly without thinking or planning. That move may result in your capture or death. Don’t move just for the sake of taking action. Consider all aspects of your situation (size up your situation) before you make a decision and a move. If you act in haste, you may forget or lose some of your equipment. In your haste you may also become disoriented so that you don’t know which way to go. Plan your moves. Be ready to move out quickly without endangering yourself if the enemy is near you. Use all your senses to evaluate the situation. Note sounds and smells. Be sensitive to temperature changes. Be observant.

R -Remember Where You Are

Spot your location on your map and relate it to the surrounding terrain. This is a basic principle that you must always follow. If there are other persons with you, make sure they also know their location. Always know who in your group, vehicle, or aircraft has a map and compass. If that person is killed, you will have to get the map and compass from him. Pay close attention to where you are and to where you are going. Do not rely on others in the group to keep track of the route. Constantly orient yourself. Always try to determine, as a minimum, how your location relates to:

  • The location of enemy units and controlled areas.
  • The location of friendly units and controlled areas.
  • The location of local water sources (especially important in the desert).
  • Areas that will provide good cover and concealment.

This information will allow you to make intelligent decisions when you are in a survival and evasion situation.

V -Vanquish Fear and Panic

The greatest enemies in a combat survival and evasion situation are fear and panic. If uncontrolled, they can destroy your ability to make an intelligent decision. They may cause you to react to your feelings and imagination rather than to your situation. They can drain your energy and thereby cause other negative emotions. Previous survival and evasion training and self-confidence will enable you to vanquish fear and panic.

I -Improvise

In the United States, we have items available for all our needs. Many of these items are cheap to replace when damaged. Our easy come, easy go, easy-to-replace culture makes it unnecessary for us to improvise. This inexperience in improvisation can be an enemy in a survival situation. Learn to improvise. Take a tool designed for a specific purpose and see how many other uses you can make of it.
Learn to use natural objects around you for different needs. An example is using a rock for a hammer. No matter how complete a survival kit you have with you, it will run out or wear out after a while. Your imagination must take over when your kit wears out.

V -Value Living

All of us were born kicking and fighting to live, but we have become used to the soft life. We have become creatures of comfort. We dislike inconveniences and discomforts. What happens when we are faced with a survival situation with its stresses, inconveniences, and discomforts? This is when the will to live- placing a high value on living-is vital. The experience and knowledge you have gained through life and your Army training will have a bearing on your will to live. Stubbornness, a refusal to give in to problems and obstacles that face you, will give you the mental and physical strength to endure.

A -Act Like the Natives

The natives and animals of a region have adapted to their environment. To get a feel of the area, watch how the people go about their daily routine. When and what do they eat? When, where, and how do they get their food? When and where do they go for water? What time do they usually go to bed and get up? These actions are important to you when you are trying to avoid capture.
Animal life in the area can also give you clues on how to survive. Animals also require food, water, and shelter. By watching them, you can find sources of water and food.

Keep in mind that the reaction of animals can reveal your presence to the enemy.
If in a friendly area, one way you can gain rapport with the natives is to show interest in their tools and how they get food and water. By studying the people, you learn to respect them, you often make valuable friends, and, most important, you learn how to adapt to their environment and increase your chances of survival.

L -Live by Your Wits, But for Now, Learn Basic Skills

Without training in basic skills for surviving and evading on the battlefield, your chances of living through a combat survival and evasion situation are slight.
Learn these basic skills now–not when you are headed for or are in the battle. How you decide to equip yourself before deployment will impact on whether or not you survive. You need to know about the environment to which you are going, and you must practice basic skills geared to that environment. For instance, if you are going to a desert, you need to know how to get water in the desert.
Practice basic survival skills during all training programs and exercises. Survival training reduces fear of the unknown and gives you self-confidence. It teaches you to live by your wits.




FM21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL – Click Picture Above to Download


HK 91 Self Loading Rifle Manual

HK 91

HK 91 Self Loading Rifle Manual

Below has been recreated from an original HK 91 manual. Click the link below to view and download the pdf manual

HK 91 Self Loading Rifle Manual

HK 91 Firing

HK 91 General Information
The Self Loading Rifle HK 91 is the non-military design of the well-known Automatic Rifle G3, adopted as standard weapon by the Deutsche Bundeswehr (Federal German Armed Forces) and the armed forces of several other nations. The HK 91 is like the G3 a recoil operated weapon incorporating a delayed roller locked bolt system and designed for semi-automatic fire. The cartridges are fed from a 20-round magazine. The HK 91 excels particularly because of its excellent firing accuracy. A telescopic sight with mount can easily be attached to the already existing receiving means of the Rifle HK 91.

HK 91 Loading

  1. Set selective fire lever at “S” = safe.
  2. Retract cocking lever engaging it in the recess of the cocking lever housing.
  3. Insert filled magazine into the magazine well until the magazine catch locks magazine into position.
  4. Let cocking lever snap forward.

The rifle is loaded and “safe”.

HK 91 Firing

  1. Disengage the safety.
  2. Pull the trigger.
  3. Engage the safety whenever firing is interrupted or completed.

HK 91 Unloading

  1. Check to make sure that the selective fire lever is at “S”= safe.
  2. Remove magazine by pushing magazine catch button to the left.
  3. Retract cocking lever.
  4. Check to make sure whether chamber is empty.
  5. Let cocking lever snap forward.
  6. Disengage the safety.
  7. Pull the trigger.
  8. Engage the safety.

HK 91 Stripping the Rifle for Cleaning

  1.  The Rifle HK 91 is stripped and re-assembled without any tools.

Before Stripping the HK 91 Rifle

  1. Put at “S”= safe.
  2. Remove magazine.
  3. Unload rifle.
  4. Unhook carrying sling at front eyebolt.
  5. Remove back plate with butt stock.
  6. Remove grip assembly.
  7. Retract bolt assembly by means of the cocking lever and remove the bolt to the rear.
  8. Push cocking lever forward.

Stripping the HK 91 Bolt Assembly

HK 91 Stripping Bolt Assembly

HK 91 Stripping Bolt Assembly

  1. To strip the bolt assembly grasp the bolt head carrier with one hand, rotate the bolt head with the other hand and pull it from
    the locking piece.
  2. Rotate locking piece slightly. This will free the firing pin and firing spring which can then be removed together from the bolt head carrier.

The HK 91 bolt is re-assembled in reverse sequence. Care should be taken with the following:

  1. Push locking piece with its stud into the recess in the bolt head° carrier as far as it will go and rotate approx. 90 towards the check lever.
  2. Push bolt head onto the locking piece in such a manner that the tapered surface of the bolt head stops in front of the nose of the check lever.
  3. Push bolt head against the pressure of the check lever spring as far as it will go. Pull the bolt head forward approx. 1/4″ (approx. 5 mm) in this position.
  4. Rotate the bolt head until its base is even with the base of the bolt head carrier.

Re-assembling of the HK 91 Rifle

The rifle is re-assembled in reverse sequence. Insert the re­assembled bolt into the receiver. The locking rollers must be withdrawn in the bolt head. Check the proper assembly of the rifle by pulling back and releasing the cocking lever several times.

Cleaning the HK 91 Rifle

For cleaning , the weapon must be disassembled as stated. The barrel must be cleaned after each firing. Each shooter will duly clean his weapon if it has not been used for a longer period. For cleaning and preservation any sort of gun oil in normal commercial usage can be used. Prior to every shooting the barrel has to be freed from oil by a clean pull-through.

HK 91 Sights

The HK 91 Sights consist of the stationary front sight in the front sight holder and the rotary rear sight which is adjustable for windage and elevation. The sight cylinder with Y-notch and diopter holes is graduated from 1 – 4. Figure 11 “1” is the Y-notch and figures 112, 3 and 411 are the diopter holes. The settings “2, 3 and 4” correspond to the distances 200, 300 and 400 m.

Adjusting the HK 91 Rotary Rear Sight
If a re-setting is necessary, it is done only by adjustment of the rear sight in elevation or windage.
HK 91 Rotary Rear Sight Elevation Adjustment

HK 91 Rotary Rear Sight Elevation Adjustment

HK 91 Rotary Rear Sight Elevation Adjustment

Insert elevation adjustment tool in the rear sight cylinder so that the wedges of the elevation adjustment tool gear into both grooves of the rear sight cylinder. Insert cross slit screw driver into the elevation adjustment tool and depress. Turn rear sight cylinder manually in the desired direction (at clockwise rotation the point of impact is lowered, at counter-clockwise rotation it raises 3.3 cm at 100 m per notch). After correction remove cross slit screw driver and elevation adjustment tool. Again the catch bolts engage in the two grooves.

HK 91 Windage Adjustment

HK 91 Windage Adjustment

HK 91 Windage Adjustment

Point of impact to the left: loosen clamping screw. Turn adjusting screw counter-clockwise as required. Re-tighten clamping screw.
Point of impact to the right: loosen clamping screw. Turn ad­justing screw clockwise to make necessary correction. Re-tighten clamping screw.
Note: Each revolution of the adjusting screw moves the mean point of impact at a distance of 100 m 13.2 cm in either direction.

HK 91 Specifications 

  • length of rifle – 40.15 in.
  • Length of barrel – 17.55 in.
  • Sight radius – 22.52 in.
  • Weight of rifle without magazine – 9.63 lbs.
  • Weight of magazine filled with 20 cartridges – 1.32 lbs.
  • Telescopic sight – Hensoldt 4 x 24
  • Telescopic sight mount – HK spec. mount

HK 91 Accessories 

  1. Carrying sling
  2. Telescopic sight with mount
  3. Cleaning kit
  4. Rear Sight adjusting tool

HK 91 Self Loading Rifle Manual